Research & Critiques

Thimerosal is an organic compound that is 49.6% ethyl mercury by weight. Developed as an antiseptic and antibacterial product, pharmaceutical companies began to use thimerosal in vaccines in the 1930s for the intended purpose of preventing bacterial contamination due to repeated needle punctures into multi-dose vials of vaccine. This document includes abstracts from over 190 research studies detailing the effects of including thimerosal in vaccines.

Browse through and/or download a PDF of all the study abstracts (linking to PDF of all 190+ study abstracts) or read the individual study abstracts listed individually (linking to a page with the individual abstracts listed.)

Also see:

Mercury (all sources) Research

Mercury-Autism Research

Adams 2007 – Mercury, Lead, and Zinc in Baby Teeth of Children with Autism Versus Controls

Agrawal 2007 – Thimerosal Induces TH2 Responses via Influencing Cytokine Secretion By Human Dendritic Cells

Barile 2012 – Thimerosal Exposure in Early Life and Neuropsychological Outcomes 7-10 Years Later

Baskin 2003 – Thimerosal Induces DNA Breaks, Caspase-3 Activation, Membrane Damage, and Cell Death in Cultured Human Neurons and Fibroblasts

Bernard 2001 – Autism: a novel form of mercury poisoning

Bernard 2002 – The role of mercury in the pathogenesis of autism

Bernard 2004 – Association Between Thimerosal-Containing Vaccine and Autism

Bernard 2008 – Early Thimerosal Exposure and Neuropsychological Outcomes

Blanusa 2012 – Mercury Disposition in Suckling Rats: Comparative Assessment Following Parenteral Exposure to Thimerosal and Mercuric Chloride

Blaxill 2004 – Concerns Continue Over Mercury and Autsim

Blaxill 2004 – Thimerosal and Autism? A Plausible Hypothesis that Should Not Be Dismissed

Blaylock 2009 – A Possible Central Mechanism In Autism Spectrum Disorders, Part 1

Blaylock 2009 – A Possible Central Mechanism In Autism Spectrum Disorders, Part 2: Immunoexcitotoxicity

Blaylock 2009 – Immune-Glutamatergic Dysfunction as a Central Mechanism of the Autism Spectrum Disorders

Bradstreet 2003 – A Case-Control Study of Mercury Burden in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

Branch 2009 – Gender-selective Toxicity of Thimerosal

Burbacher 2005 – Comparison of Blood and Brain Mercury Levels in Infant Monkeys Exposed to Methylmercury or Vaccines Containing Thimerosal

Carneiro 2014 – A Systematic Study of the Disposition and Metabolism of Mercury Species in Mice After Exposure to Low Levels of Thimerosal (ethylmercury)

Carneiro 2015 – Thimerosal Induces Apoptotic and Fibrotic Changes to Kidney Epithelial Cells In Vitro

Cave 2008 – The History of Vaccinations in the Light of the Autism Epidemic

Chen 2013 – Effect of Thimerosal on the Neurodevelopment of Premature Rats

Choi 2016 – Ethylmercury-Induced Oxidative snd Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Medicates Autophagic Cell Death: Involvment of Autophagosome – Lysosome Fusion Arrest

Colman 2003 – Mercury in Infants give Vaccines Containing Thimerosal

Crowe 2016 – Mercury as an Environmental Stimulus in the Development of Autoimmunity – A Systematic Review

de Olivera Souza 2016 – A Brain Proteome Profile in Rats Exposed to Methylmercury of Thimerosal (ethylmercury)

Desoto 2010 – Sorting Out the Spinning of Autism: Heavy Metals and the Question of Incidence

Deth 2007 – How environmental and genetic facts combine to cause autism: A redox/methylation hypothesis

Dorea 2008 – Hair Mercury concentrations in Korean Infants Could Be Influenced by Thimerosal-containing Vaccines

Dorea 2008 – Modeling NeurodevelopmentOutcomes and Ethylmercury Exposure from Thimerosal-Containing Vaccines

Dorea 2009 – Comparing Fish-mercury Exposed Amazonian Children: Should We Not Consider Thimerosal-preserved Vaccines?

Dorea 2009 – Neonate Exposure to Thimerosal Mercury from Hepatitis B Vaccines

Dorea 2010 – Infants’ Exposure to Aluminum from Vaccines and Breast Milk During the First 6 Months

Dorea 2010 – Making Sense of Epidemiological Studies of Young children Exposed to Thimerosal in Vaccines

Dorea 2011 – Integrating Experimental (In Vitro and In Vivo) Neurotoxicity Studies of Low-dose Thimerosal Relevant to Vaccines

Dorea 2012 – Multiple Toxic Heavy Metals and Neonatal Neurobehavior in china Require Considering Co-exposure to Thimerosal-ethylmercury and Adjuvant-aluminum

Dorea 2013 – Low-Dose Mercury Eposure in Early Life : Relavance of Thimerosal to Fetuses, Newborns and Infants

Dorea 2014 – Canine Hair as a Model for Tracing Ethylmercury from Thimerosal-containing Vaccines

Dorea 2014 – Premature and Neonate Modeling of Thimerosal Exposure and Neurodevelopment: Additional Comments

Dorea 2015 – Exposure to Mercury and Aluminum in Early Life: Developmental Vulnerability as a Modifying Factor in Neurologic and Immunologic Effects

Dorea 2017 – Abating Mercury Exposure in Young Children Should Include Thimerosal-Free Vaccines

Dorea 2017 – Low-dose Thimerosal in Pediatric Vaccines: Adverse Effects in Perspective

Drum 2009 – Are Toxic Biometals Destroying Your Children’s Future?

Duszczyk-Budhathoki 2012 – Administration of Thimerosal to Infant Rats Increases Overflow of Glutamate and Aspartate in the Prefrontal Cortex: Protective Role of Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate

Eke 2008 – Genotoxicity of Thimerosal in Cultured Human Lymphocytes with and without Metabolic activation Sister Chromatid Exchange Analysis Proliferation Index and Mitotic Index

Elferink 1998 – The Effect of Thimerosal on Neutrophil Migration

Elferink 1999 – Thimerosal_ A versatile sulfhydryl Reagent, Calcium Mobilizer, and Cell Function-modulating Agent

Epstein 2009 – Comparative Toxicity of Preservatives on Immortalized Corneal and Conjunctival Epithelial Cells

Evans 2000 – Regulation Of Sodium Currents Through Oxidation and Reduction of Thiol Residues

Fagan 1977 – Organ Mercury Levels in Infants With Omphaloceles Treated With organic Mercurial Antiseptic

Freitag 1980 – Ethylmercurithiosalicylate – A New Reagent For the Study of Phosphate Transport in Mitochondria

Gadad 2013 – Neuropathology and Animal Models of Autism: Genetic and Environmental Factors

Gallagher 2010 – Hepatitis B Vaccination of Male Neonates and Autism Diagnoses, NHIS 1997-2002

Garrecht 2011 – The plausibility of role for mercury in the etiology of autism: a cellular perspective

Geier 2003 – A Comparative Evaluation of the Effects of MMR Immunization and Mercury Doses from Thimerosal-containing Childhood Vaccines on the Population Prevalence of Autism

Geier 2003 – An Assessment of the Impact of Thimerosal on Childhood Neurodevelopment Disorders

Geier 2003 – Neurodevelopment Disorders after Thimerosal-containing Vaccines: A Brief Communication

Geier 2004 – Neurodevelopmental Disorders Following Thimerosal-Containing Childhood Immunizations: A Follow-Up Analysis

Geier 2005 – The Potential importance of Steroids in the Treatment of Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Other Disorders Involving Mercury Toxicity

Geier 2006 – A Prospective Study of Thimerosal-containing Rho(D)-immune globulin Administration as a Risk Factor for Autistic Disorders

Geier 2007 – An Evaluation of the Effects of Thimerosal

Geier 2008 – Neurodevelopment Disorders, Maternal Rh-Negativity, and Rho(D) Immune Globulins: A Multi-Center Assessment

Geier 2009 – A Prospective Study of Prenatal Mercury Exposure From Maternal Dental Amalgams and Autism Severity

Geier 2009 – Mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired oxidative-reduction activity, degeneration, and death in human neuronal and fetal cells induced by low-level exposure in thimerosal and other metal compounds

Geier 2010 – The Biological Basis of Autism Spectrum Disorders: Understanding Causation and Treatment by Clinical Geneticists

Geier 2013 – A two-phase study evaluating the relationship between Thimerosal-containing vaccine administration and the risk for an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis in the United States

Geier 2014 – A Dose-Response Relationship between Organic Mercury Exposure from Thimerosal-Containing Vaccines and Neurodevelopment Disorders

Geier 2014 – The risk of neurodevelopment disorders following a Thimerosal-preserved DTaP formulation in comparison to its Thimerosal-reduced formulation in the vaccine adverse event reporting system (VAERS)

Geier 2015 – A Case-Control Study Evaluating the Relationship Between Thimerosal-Containing Haemophilus influenza Type b Vaccine Administration and the Risk for a Pervasive Developmental Disorder Diagnosis in the United States

Geier 2015 – Thimerosal exposure and increased risk for diagnosed tic disorder in the United States: a case-control study

Geier 2015 – Thimerosal: Clinical, epidemiologic and biochemical studies

Geier 2016 – A longitudinal cohort study of the relationship between Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccination and specific delays in development in the United States: Assessment of attributable risk and lifetime care costs

Geier 2016 – Thimerosal-Containing Hepatitis B Vaccination and the Risk for Diagnosed Specific Delays in Development in the United States: A Case-Control Study in the Vaccine Safety Datalink

Geier 2016 – Thimerosal-containing Hepatitis B Vaccine Exposure is Highly Associated with Childhood Obesity: A Case-control Study Using the Vaccine Safety Datalink

Geier 2016 – Thimerosal-Preserved Hepatitis B Vaccine and Hyperkinetic Syndrome of Childhood

Geier 2017 – A Case Series of Children with Apparent Mercury Toxic Encephalopathies Manifesting with Clinical Symptoms of Regressive Autistic Disorders

Geier 2017 – Abnormal Brain Connectivity Spectrum Disorders Following Thimerosal Administration: A Prospective Longitudinal Case–Control Assessment of Medical Records in the Vaccine Safety Datalink

Geier 2017 – Increased Risk for an Atypical Autism Diagnosis Following Thimerosal-containing Vaccine Exposure in the United States: A Prospective Longitudinal Case-Control Study in the Vaccine Study Datalink

Geier 2017 – Thimerosal exposure and disturbance of emotions specific to childhood and adolescence: A case-control study in the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) database

Gericke 1993 – Thimerosal induced changes of intracellular calcium in human endothelial cells

Gillespie 1992 – Repetitive Transients in Intracellular Ca2+ in Cultured Human Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

Goldman 2013 – Comparison of VAERS fetal-loss reports during three consecutive influenza seasons: Was there a synergistic fetal toxicity associated with the two-vaccine 2009/2010 season?

Goodwin 1995 – Increased expression of procoagulant activity on the surface of human platelets exposed to heavy-metal compounds

Guida 2016 – MC1568 Inhibits Thimerosal-Induced Apoptotic Cell Death by Preventing HDAC4 Up-Regulation in Neuronal Cells and in Rat Prefrontal Cortex

Haase 2015 – Ethylmercury and Hg2+ induce the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) by human neutrophil granulocytes

Hashimoto 2009 – Increase in intracellular Zn2+ concentration by thimerosal in rat thymocytes: Intracellular Zn2+ release induced by oxidative stress

Havarinasab 2004 – Dose-response study of thimerosal-induced murine systemic autoimmunity

Havarinasab 2005 – Immunosuppressive and autoimmune effects of thimerosal in mice

Havarinasab 2005 – Organic mercury compounds and autoimmunity

Havarinasab 2006 – Alteration of the spontaneous systemic autoimmune disease in (NZB x NZW)F1 mice by treatment with thimerosal (ethyl mercury)

Heckler 1989 – The Sulphydryl Reagent Thimerosal Elicits Human Platelet Aggregation by Mobilization of Intracellular Calcium and Secondary Prostaglandin Endoperoxide Formation

Herdman 2006 – Thimerosal Induces Apoptosis in a Neuroblastoma Model via the cJun N-Terminal Kinase Pathway

Hewitson 2010 – Delayed Acquisition of Neonatal Reflexes in Newborn Primates Receiving a Thimerosal-Containing Hepatitis B Vaccine: Influence of Gestational Age and Birth Weight

Hewitson 2010 – Influence of pediatric vaccines on amygdala growth and opioid ligand binding in rhesus macaque infants: A pilot study

Heyworth 1979 – Problems associated with the use of merthiolate as a preservative in anti-lymphocytic globulin

Hooker 2014 – Methodological Issues and Evidence of Malfeasance in Research Purporting to Show Thimerosal in Vaccines Is Safe

Humphrey 2005 – Mitochondrial Mediated Thimerosal-Induced Apoptosis in a Human Neuroblastoma Cell Line (SK-N-SH)

Hunter 2010 – Neuroligin-deficient mutants of C. elegans have sensory processing deficits and are hypersensitive to oxidative stress and mercury toxicity

Ida-Eto 2011 – Embryonic exposure to thimerosal, an organomercury compound, causes abnormal early development of serotonergic neurons

Ida-Eto 2013 – Prenatal exposure to organomercury, thimerosal, persistently impairs the serotonergic and dopaminergic systems in the rat brain: Implications for association with developmental disorders

Islam 1993 – Sulfhydryl oxidation induces rapid and reversible closure of the ATP-regulated K channel in the pancreatic β-cell